Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Assessment by Portfolio and Standardized Testing - Smart Custom Writing Samples

Evaluation by Portfolio and Standardized Testing - Smart Custom Writing Law in BookLaw alludes to the general core values that give the depiction of the crucial idea of a thing, to all inclusive assets and connection between things. The â€Å"rule of law† exclusively relies upon uniform use of laws and the basic strategy. This infers the lawful methodology ought to be isolated off from the political procedures that the appointed authorities and the courts ought to be free. It likewise critical to take note of that law or the lawful procedure is extremely hard to support. This is because of the way that amazing powers are continually attempting to inclination law toward them and unmistakably it has been a simple rule to keep up however delicate (Jacob, 1998). My comprehension concerning dark letter law is that it is the set up measures for a specific law or conventionality. These are the things we generally find in reading material and involves the relational words that judges are equipped for refering to contention. Laws or rather the dark letter law is fundamental since it is profoundly legitimate and can be required to be applied with high level of conviction. No different, â€Å"Law in Action† advises us that regardless of how fascinating or rich a hypothesis may have all the earmarks of being we should consistently ask ourselves, â€Å"Why should it matter to the people over the world?† For the most part, the dark letter law can likewise be alluded to as that essential gauges or components of a specific law that can not be questioned. This term is basic in the American legitimate structure however in English law, it is utilized in alluding to territories of law that are portrayed by specialized standards as opposed to having theoretical premise. Law in real life is our mark way to deal with understanding the lawful instruction and system that catches the one of a kind and extraordinary pretended by most foundations inside lawful training (Willard, 1968). The law is likewise founded on the applied structure that influences every one of our endeavors. The idea of law in real life introduces itself any second that we happen to talk about what our identity is and who we want to be. At the point when you join a large portion of the resources you will consistently here this expression and later came to understand that it represents that so as to really comprehend the law, you need to comprehend the law on the books first. It additionally goes past resolutions and cases and spotlights on how law is applied out there in the network level. Law in real life is a direction that has prompted our open status for earth shattering ways to deal with both instructing and grant. It likewise grasps our predominance throughout the years in fields, for example, lawful history, criminal equity, mechanical relations, law and society, and corresponding institutional cash matters. This law offers a test to us by consolidating our mastery and insightful customs with the qualities of the extraordinary scholarly world of which we are a section, so as to assume national administration in rising zones, for example, bioethics, globalization, and different components of law and innovation (Jacob, 1998). Law in real life's Relevance for the Future Our popular law in real life despite everything prospers and creates step by step, and it for the most part possesses the focal situation in the entirety of our endeavors in association with our Strategic Plan. Law in real life gives us the concentration to comprehend the showdowns of staying one of the countries phenomenal graduate schools. With the assistance of law in real life, obviously we will keep on building our national status for differentiation and our commitment to the Law in real life reasoning. It is a way of thinking that has served most Law School graduates well over the previous century, and it is one that may demonstrate much progressively important for tomorrow's alumni as we are progressively being confronted with an increasingly diverse, forceful, and requesting world. At the point when we take a gander at the popular dissident lawful case made by Lon Fuller in his article, â€Å"The Case of the Speluncean Explorers,† we find that the case gives us the image of a gathering of spelunkers or cavern voyagers caught via avalanche. It is apparent that after understanding that they are moving toward a moment that they will be confronted with starvation, they make radio call to the salvage group and engineers’ gauges that salvage group are probably going to take an additional ten days. The spelunkers are flabbergasted whether they will get by for each one of those ten years. In any case, all things considered, in the wake of being saved they are arraigned for homicide and all things considered or some second later Newgarth conveys an obligatory capital punishment (Paul, King, 1997). As on account of the police officer and the driver who was driving affected by liquor and starts to contend with the cop when addressed, plainly the driver is illegal yet professes not to comprehend. He is then told by the police that â€Å"That is the law† implying that where there is no law there is oppression and abuse. The driver feels that since he is driving his own vehicle it isn't important to have driving permit since it is intended for those driving open vehicle administrations. This likewise underpins the comparable idea of the standard of law† where composed law in charge of individual practices not the impulses of a resilient man ruler (Jacob, 1998). To finish up, it is apparent that the law is intended to defend the enthusiasm of the overall population, their lives, just as property. Furthermore, it is additionally essential to take note of that when the law closes, starts oppression. Without law set up individuals are probably going to be treated in the way that isn't suitable since there are those bringing law into their hands (Jacob, 1998). References Jacob H. (1998) Law in real life: legitimate outskirts for common assets arranging. Oxford: Oxford University Press Paul, D. what's more, King, E. (1997) Law and the Wisconsin Idea, 47 Journal of Legal Education 297 Willard, H. (1968) Changing Responsibilities of the Law School 1868-1968, Wisconsin L. Fire up. 336.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Essay example --

History/Educational Influences Marina City, as a pioneer urban arrangement, was conceivable by Bertrand Goldberg in view of his formal building preparing just as his initial practice and cooperation with key engineers. Introduction to structural, financial, and social setting that formed innovator engineering created him as a modeler. Impact started at an early stage from his material science instructor, George Vaubel, which motivated him with a long lasting adoration for rationale and â€Å"reasoning backwards† and discovering proof for what was educated to him. Goldberg learned at the Cambridge School of Architecture and Landscape then at the Bauhaus in Berlin, Germany and in conclusion, at the Armor Institute of Technology in Chicago. He found design while learning at Harvard in 1930. The dignitary, Henry Frost, permitted Goldberg to concentrate with his alumni studio as an undergrad. During the Great Depression, Goldberg was learning at Harvard where banters with teachers and individual understudies fix ated on the political and social issue, managing destitution. It released and impacted his deep rooted awareness of social and political elements since he took social and political issues into thought when structuring. Harvard presented Goldberg to the Beaux-Arts engineering and he wanted to go to Paris to concentrate yet rather went to the Bauhaus in the wake of being exhorted. The Bauhaus acquainted Goldberg with the new standards of workmanship and design. The Bauhaus underlined on vision and spatial abilities. Goldberg was extraordinarily affected by Mies van de Rohe and Josef Albers. Goldberg grasped â€Å"less is more† and was restrained to work out subtleties of the absolute plan by making a tasteful out of structure and looking for union with a modern world. At the B... ... arrangement of a focal center and segments made the structure protected and proficient. The solid likewise acted gave protection from elevate on account of solid nature of greatness. Mechanical frameworks were built inside the floors which considered progressively spatial opportunity. The effective answer for the establishment was likewise accomplished through designing and the utilization of caissons. Development started after basic issues were settled. Machine and hand turned into the medium to make the structure. While the pinnacle crane took into consideration the quick development of Marina City, artisanship was additionally required. The utilization of formwork to make the petals expect of artisanship while being mass produce suggested machine. The hand work can be found in the lopsided surfaces were forming was required. Marina City turned into the greatest auxiliary and private structure at the hour of its finishing.

Saturday, August 1, 2020

Diverse Workforce In Australia Example

Diverse Workforce In Australia Example Diverse Workforce In Australia â€" Essay Example > Diverse Workforce in AustraliaIntroductionDiversity within a working environment covers gender, ethnicity, age, language, cultural background, religious belief, family responsibilities and sexual orientation of the population within that environment (Cox and Blake 1991, p. 45-56). Diversity also means other ways in which the workers in a particular environment are different, or instance educational level, work experience, life experience, socioeconomic background, marital status and personality. Workplace diversity generally involves recognizing the individual differences in values and managing them within that respective workplace. The diversity of the employees in Australian context is one of its greatest. Managing diversity in the country successfully means the ability to create an environment, which utilizes and values people’s contributions with diverse experiences, perspectives and backgrounds (Michael 1996, p. 215-298). Organizations generally need to develop management s trategies for their employees, which are capable of accommodating differences in the background, family responsibilities and perspectives of their employees. They need to equally recognize the diverse contributions, which diversity of perspectives makes to develop new ways and ideas of doing things. The concept of workplace diversity is an inclusion of the equal employment opportunity principle. This paper discusses the work diversity topic looking deeply into issues of discrimination and the disadvantage concepts within the Australian context. Diverse nature of the workforce in AustraliaAustralia has an extensive diversity in the respective work places. The country employs many people with diverse cultures from all corners of the globe. Australia has an inclusive and tolerant society made up of individuals from many, diverse backgrounds. Cultural diversity is a prominent feature of the national identity of Australia. Since 1900, the Australian population has been consisting of a s mall number of Indigenous people relatively and a substantial majority of Europeans mostly from countries for instance Britain (Cope and Mary 1997, p. 178-201). By 2008, Australia’s population by far exceeded 21 million with an inclusion of people from over 200 countries. In this context, the diversity even in the work force is intolerable (Napoli 1998, p. 178-198). Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal people are culturally diverse in the country, belonging to numerous language groups. Global trends and the fast growing nature of Australia has been bringing people to Australia for a long period and therefore, creating the diversity (Michael 1996, p. 215-298). From the gold rush era of the early 1850s to the present globalization, the diversity in the work force of Australia has been increasing and widening by day (Patrickson 1994, p. 25-32). Discrimination and DisadvantageDiscrimination is part of the concepts that feature prominently when looking into issues of work diversity. Discrimination in this context means the systematic acts, which deprive a specific group of equal treatment for instance pay rates, promotion, hiring and access among others (Brian 1999, p. 530-547). This in other words is depriving particular groups of people equal opportunities within the work force without clear and justified reasons of doing so. On the other hand, disadvantage is a concept that also features broadly in this context. This involves groups of people who endure unequal opportunities for reasons without ground. In other words, it means the poorer outcomes as well as conditions being assigned to specific groups (Robin 1998, p. 133-142). Such groups in the Australian context usually include women, the disabled, non-English-speaking migrants, and the indigenous Australians (Napoli 1998, p. 178-198). In reality, these groups always experience difficult times in their work environment with preferences falling on fellows or work mates.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Business Ethics Essay - 3440 Words

The Moral Compass essay Ethics relates to given principles that govern behavior and conduct of a human being. Business ethics on the other hand is the code of a conduct that a company or an organization abides to in the day to day operations with the public (Conjecture Corporation, 2011). Making profits and high volume sales should not be the only goal of a business, a good reputation to the public is also very important for the survival of a company. This has led to companies formulating their code of ethics for employees to adapt. Consequences are also stipulated for those who defy these ethical codes and company guidelines. The world of electronic commerce (e-commerce) has also started articulating the same concerning unethical†¦show more content†¦Quality products and high level customer service are mandatory for survival and competitive position of a business. Consumers abandon products from companies that act like they do not care about the quality of what they are producing. Increasing compe tition is sweeping away such firms with those kinds of irresponsible behaviors. Consumers also need to trust the firms they buy from. Online business is on the spotlight when it comes to trust. Many customers have been cheated while buying online. For instance a customer buys a given commodity, pays for it and the seller disappears. Business leaders intending to carry out e-commerce have a challenge in internet based business transactions. Consumers want to be confident that what they are buying will be delivered and they will not suffer from any misguidance or failure of delivery may it be now or in the future. Reliability is the key to online business. As a business leader I have to be able to retain hardworking and high performing workers for the business to maintain high profits as well as intelligent skills and knowledgeable workers. I have to ensure that employees understand clearly the vision and the mission of the company. The mission of the organization has to be followed and the day to day operations of the company must reflect adherence to both the vision and mission of the company. I should also discourage interference with the companyShow MoreRelatedBusiness Ethics : Ethics And Business943 Words   |  4 Pagesdiscussions in Business is Ethics. Some people believe that the decisions businesses make in interest of the business has no place in ethics and that they are essentially amoral. These businesses believe that their main objective is to simply make a profit and that it does not affect the success of the business. Whereas some businesses believe that they have to take ethics into consideration, in order for their bu siness to be a success. Richard T. De George (1999) states that ethics and business do notRead MoreThe Ethics Of Business Ethics1471 Words   |  6 PagesReview Nowadays, the concern for business ethics is growing rapidly in the business community around the world. Business ethics are focused on the judgment of decisions taken by managers and their behaviors. The issue regarding these judgments is the norms and cultures that shape these judgments. Business ethics are concerned about the issue, how will the issue be solved and how will it move ahead along the transition analysis as well (Carroll, 2014). Business ethics can be addressed at differentRead MoreEthics And Ethics Of Business Ethics1304 Words   |  6 PagesBusiness Ethics Varun Shah University of Texas at Dallas Business Ethics Morals are a crucial part of life. Without having principles one would never be able to distinguish the right from wrong and good from evil. Just as it applies to life in general, ethics is an integral part of doing business as well. When we here the term Business Ethics in our work place, we usually do not take it seriously and brush it off saying ‘it’s just a simple set of basic rules like not cheating and so on’. ThisRead MoreThe Ethics Of Business Ethics Essay1097 Words   |  5 PagesResource A discusses how ethics is crucial in business. There are three key ideas used to understand this. Firstly, making ethically wrong decisions tend to cause more upset than other general mistakes as purposeful unethical actions are not as easily forgiven or forgotten. Secondly, ethics provides businesses with a broader understanding of everything to do with their business. Business ethics is effectively just business it its larger human context. Thirdly, being unethical ca n tarnish the publicRead MoreThe Ethics Of Business Ethics1064 Words   |  5 Pages    Business Ethics Ethics can be viewed as the rules and values that determine goals and actions people should follow when dealing with other human beings. However, business ethics can be defined as moral principles of a business. It examines moral or ethical problems that arise in a business environment. Generally, it has both normative and descriptive dimensions. Organization practice and career specialization are regarded as normative whereas academics attempting to understand business behaviourRead MoreThe Ethics Of Business Ethics757 Words   |  4 Pagesdeciding what to do in certain situations, ethics is what guides an individual to act in a way that is good, or right. Those involved in business settings apply ethics to business situations, known as business ethics. It is expected of businesses, small and large, to follow business ethics. There is a particular framework businesses are to follow. However, the reoccurring news headlines of poor business ethics prove differently. Poor busine ss ethics include bribery, corporate accounting scandalsRead MoreEthics And Ethics Of Business Ethics1200 Words   |  5 PagesEthics meaning in simple way for average person is what is right from wrong. According to Chris MacDonald (2010)† Ethics† can be defined as the critical, structured examinations of how we should behave - in particular, how we should constrain the pursuit of self-interest when our actions affect others. â€Å"Business ethics is the applied ethics discipline that address the moral features of commercial activity (Business ethics, 2008).Working in ethical way in business has a lot of benefits which can attractRead MoreBusiness Ethics Essay944 Words   |  4 PagesUnderstanding Business Ethics Unit 37: National Diploma Assignment brief TASK 1: Scenario: Business ethics - a study of a selected company With growing interest among consumers regarding the business ethics of the businesses brands that consumers buy, Westminster council wants to conduct an independent review of some of the organisations that sell their goods and services in the borough. You have been asked to select one of the following brands and conduct research into their business ethics. Read MoreThe Ethics Of The Business Ethics1431 Words   |  6 Pages BUSINESS ETHICS INTRODUCTION:- Presentation Ethics are exceptionally regular and essential good esteem that helps us to take the right choice where we think that it hard to pick between our own advantages and the correct thing to do. We are going to talk about three sections of morals Behavioral morals, Bounded ethicality and last one is irreconcilable situation. As from the names of these parts of morals, its verging on clarifying the significance of it. It clarifies why great individualsRead MoreThe Ethics Of Business Ethics Essay2711 Words   |  11 PagesBusiness Ethics Business ethics is a type of professional ethics or applied ethics which examines moral problems and ethical principles that come up in a corporate environment. It is applied to every aspect of conducting business. According to Milton Friedman, a company has the responsibility to generate as much revenue as it can while still conforming to the basic rules that society has set. These rules include the ones embodied in customs as well as in law. Similarly, Peter Drucker stated that

Sunday, May 10, 2020

Phil Knights Success in the Sports Equipment Industry

Phil Knight is the founder and CEO of Nike. Phil was the 60th richest man in the world according to forbes list. Knight’s fortune estimated to about $12.7 billion. Philip Knight was born on February twenty-fourth nineteen thirty-eight. He has a bachelors degree in accounting from Stanford University. He wasn’t the best student at Stanford, he spent most of his time in athletics. He first began selling sneakers in partnership with Asics. In 1971, Phil created the name Nike (name of a Greek goddess, which symbolizes victory.) This was just the beginning of Phil Knights success. Phil started Nike all because of his interest in athletics. He wanted to improve the design of Tigers (Ribbon Sports, first shoes) and do more than sell shoes of other brands. Phil’s interest in athletics made him very successful. His small business of selling shoes in college turned into Nike one of the most popular sports brands today. In 1993 Phil Knight was voted â€Å"the most powerful person in sports†, what amazes me is that he isn’t even an athlete, or team manager, he is just a very popular icon for sports. It’s unbelieveable how an interest as simple as sports made Phil Knight the man he is today. Knight had some skill on starting a small business. He just kept building on his business and kept on improving his products. He outlined a plan for breaking the reputation Adidas had on the running-shoe. In Order to do this Knight used cheap Japanese labor to make a cheaper, better quality runningShow MoreRelatedCase Study - Nike: Spreading Out to Stay Together1343 Words   |  6 Pagesfootwear, apparel, equipment, accessories and services. The company is headquartered near  Beaverton, Oregon, in the  Portland metropolitan area. It is the world s leading supplier of  athletic shoes  and  apparel  and a major manufacturer of  sports equipment, with revenue in excess of US$24.1  billion in its fiscal year 2012 (ending May 31, 2012). As of 2012, it employed more than 44,000 people worldwide. The brand alone is valued at $10.7 Billion making it the most valuable brand among sports businesses. NikeRead MoreTarget Market of Bata1441 Words   |  6 PagesNike products inc luding shoes, apparel and lifestyle items in five of our top stores located in posh areas of capital Dhaka, said a senior Bata Shoe company official on condition of anonymity. There is a growing demand for high-end footwear and sport shoes among a fast-growing upper segment of the society. Our target is to grab the market with the worlds best footwear brand, Nike, he said. There is a craze for Nike keds among university students, athletes and joggers. They wouldnt care forRead MoreTaking a Look at Nike Inc.974 Words   |  4 Pagesdesigns, develops, markets, and sells athletic footwear, apparel, equipment, and accessories for a variety of sports and fitness activities. In 1964, it started its empire as a company that distributed Japanese running shoes, Tiger, in the United States with the name Blue Ribbon Sports in 1964. Nike founders—Bill Bowerman and Phil Knight—had a great coach-student relationship when both were still at University of Oregon; Bowerman was Knight’s coach seeking a better running shoe and Knight loved athleticsRead MoreNike: Blue Ribbon Sports by Bill Bowerman and Phil Knight in 1964974 Words   |  4 PagesTiger, in the United States with the name Blue Ribbon Sports by Bill Bowerman and Phil Knight in 1964. Its founders have a very good coach-student relationship back in the days where both were still at Un iversity of Oregon; Bowerman was Knight’s coach seeking a better running shoes and Knight loves athletics so much that he could not live without it. The good relationship continues to start a business together, Blue Ribbon Sports. After the success of Tiger shoes, Nike is invented in 1971. Nike is actuallyRead MoreNike Marketing Strategy5981 Words   |  24 Pagesfounded by college athlete and present Chairman, Phil Knight, and his former coach, Bill Bowerman, to create quality shoes that help athletes reach their full potential. Our company’s headquarters are near Beaverton, Oregon. We operate in more than 160 countries and have more than 44,000 employees worldwide. Our goal is to meet the needs of athletes and the everyday customer. We have expanded our product lines to include sports performance equipment, clothing and accessories. We have also pairedRead MoreCase Study9153 Words   |  37 PagesBinti Mohd Nizam (212360), Nur Adila Binti Husny (212372), Siti Jaliha Binti Ab Jalir (212373), Marcella Edmunt (212381), Nuraini Binti Ruslan (212385), Nurul Fatin Asyiqin Binti Roslan (212388) and Sara Nabila Binti Abd Malik.(212395) ] we were success in discussed all the cases and complete this assignment together. Lastly, we wish to thank to our colleagues and family members in giving us support to finish this assignment. Without their support, we definitely in a hard condition while finishingRead MoreEssay about Analysis of Nike3792 Words   |  16 Pagesjust about every sport, including baseball, volleyball, cheerleading, and wrestling. NIKE also sells Cole Haan dress and casual shoes and a line of athletic wear and equipment, such as hockey sticks, skates, and timepieces. In addition, it operates NIKETOWN shoe and sportswear stores and is opening JORDAN in store outlets in suburban markets. NIKE sells its product to about 19,000 US accountants, in about 140 other countries, and online. Chairman, CEO, and co-founder Phil Knight owns. NikeRead MoreEvaluate the impact of innovation on your selected organization. Discus the impact on strategy, process, product, and or service within each type of organization2029 Words   |  9 Pagesinfrastructures, financial management tools, networking, desktop platforms, mobility, web browser, programming, and the flagship product, the Windows Operating System (Microsoft). Just about every industry, private or public uses Microsoft products. Microsoft offers specialized products for industries such as the government, healthcare, manufacturing, entertainment and retail. At the same time Microsoft is able to offer the same services and products to small businesses and every day users with theRead MoreNike and Child Labor2109 Words   |  9 Pagesthe production of its soccer balls in Pakistan. This case study will examine the claims and describe the industry and its impact on laborers and their working conditions. While Pakistan has laws against ch ild labor and slavery, the government has taken very little action to combat it. Only a boycott by the United States and other nations will have any impact on slavery and child-based industries. Futhermore the U.S constitution states that child labor is an illegal and inhumane practice and any U.SRead MoreAnalysis of Nike Inc.9194 Words   |  37 Pagespropelled Nike to the top of its industry. However, not the entire of Nike’s story is ideal. In recent years, the company has faced criticism in connection with its use of contract labor in developing nations. The purpose of this case is to provide an understanding of the company’s background, its general business strategy, and its use of contract labor. The Athletic Apparel and Footwear Industry The athletic apparel and footwear industry experienced steady growth for more

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Free trade Free Essays

Free trade is the path to prosperity for countries, benefiting consumers, producers and governs. It enhances competition and eliminates inefficient firms by requiring better productivity, which enables products to reach consumers at a lower price and variety, and create new Jobs, thereby increasing economic development (Brenan 2007, Para. 4; World Bank 2010, Para. We will write a custom essay sample on Free trade or any similar topic only for you Order Now 1). Although free trade has the potential to stimulate a country development and economy growth which benefit all consumers, ICC nations have garnered the majority of the benefits. For instance, Western countries have not permitted the wealth flow keeping their barriers, while developing countries have been persuaded to remove their ones (Stilling cited in Buchanan 2002). Additionally, Food and Agricultural Organization (cited in Mousse and Imitate 2005, Para. 4) states that the low average tariff for agricultural products, which is the income for 2,5 million people in the developing nations (Para. ), has contributed to the decline the economy of these nations. Free trade policy enables the flow of goods and services between countries. Developed and developing nations should be benefited by free trade such as importing and exporting products to others freely without the payment of taxes or quotas. In addition, free trade incentives a nation’s development, and also economics rising (World Bank 2010). Free trade could be favorable for everyone whether, like in theory, it happened in practice. According to Still (cited In Buchanan 2002) richer nations are disproportionably benefited more than poorer countries. For example, he states that Western countries have convinced poor countries to cancel their barriers, while they have not done the same. Moreover, Scott (2003, Para. 1) argues that free trade has helped to Increase Inequality In U. S. Even though free trade should create economically equality between richer and poor nations, It does not happen truly. How to cite Free trade, Papers

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Naturalization Essays - Nationality Law, , Term Papers

Naturalization Steps to Become a Naturalized Citizen 1. Fill out application Form N-400, then take an interview. 2. Submit $25 dollars in addition to application fee, payable to the INS with your application. You will receive information regarding the nearest INS authorized fingerprint site. I hereby declare, on oath, that I absolutely and entirely renounce and abjure all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state or sovereignty, of whom or which I have heretofore been a subject or citizen; that I will support and defend the Constitution and laws of the United States of America against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear faith and allegiance to the same; that I will bear arms on behalf of the United States when required by the law; that I will perform noncombatant service in the armed forces of the United States when required by the law; that I will perform work of national importance under civilian direction when required by the law; and that I take this obligation freely without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; so help me God. I swear to give up all of my allegiance, and loyalty to the country I lived in before. I will fight for the Constitution, and will protect the Untied States of America from any enemy, in or out of the country. When it is my time for duty, for my country, I will fight for the United States when told by law, as I will do the same for any other order given to me of national importance when required to by the law. I understand this completely, and fully, that I will serve my country without hesitance under envasion, so help me God. Bibliography This essay shows the requirments to becoming a American Citizen History Essays